Minimum swaps to reach permuted array with at most 2 positions left swaps allowed
Given a permuted array of length N of first N natural numbers, we need to tell the minimum number of swaps required in the sorted array of first N natural number to reach given permuted array where a number can be swapped with at most 2 positions left to it. If it is not possible to reach permuted array by above swap condition then print not possible.
Input : arr = [1, 2, 5, 3, 4] Output : 2 We can reach to above-permuted array in total 2 swaps as shown below, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] -> [1, 2, 3, 5, 4] -> [1, 2, 5, 3, 4] Input : arr = [5, 1, 2, 3, 4] Output : Not Possible It is not possible to reach above array just by swapping numbers 2 positions left to it.
We can solve this problem using inversions. As we can see that if a number is at a position which is more than 2 places away from its actual position then it is not possible to reach there just by swapping with elements at 2 left positions and if all element satisfy this property (there are <=2 elements smaller than it on the right) then answer will simply be a total number of inversions in the array because that many swaps will be needed to transform the array into permuted array.
We can find the number of inversions in N log N time using merge sort technique explained here so total time complexity of solution will be O(N log N) only.
Time Complexity: O(N*logN)Auxiliary Space: O(logN)
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